Normal Urological Function
The organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry urine are the urinary system. The urinary system includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, two sphincter muscles, and the urethra.
How the urinary system works
Your body takes nutrients from food and uses them to maintain all bodily functions including energy and self-repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products are left behind in the blood and in the bowel. The urinary system works with the lungs, skin, and intestines-all of which also excrete wastes-to keep the chemicals and water in your body balanced.
Adults eliminate about a quart and a half of urine each day. The amount depends on many factors, especially the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid is lost through sweat and breathing. Certain types of medications can also affect the amount of urine eliminated. The urinary system removes a type of waste called urea from your blood.
Urea is produced when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea is carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys.
Located near the middle of your back just below the rib cage, the kidneys are bean-shaped organs about the size of your fists. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron consists of a ball formed of small blood capillaries, called a glomerulus, and a small tube called a renal tubule.
Urea, together with water and other waste substances, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and down the renal tubules of the kidney.
From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. The ureters are about 8 to 10 inches long. Muscles in the ureter walls constantly tighten and relax to force urine downward away from the kidneys.
If urine is allowed to stand still, or back up, a kidney infection can develop. Small amounts of urine are emptied into the bladder from the ureters about every 10 to 15 seconds.
The bladder is a hollow muscular organ shaped like a balloon. It sits in your pelvis and is held in place by ligaments attached to other organs and the pelvic bones.
The bladder stores urine until you are ready to go to the bathroom to empty it. It swells into a round shape when it is full and gets smaller when empty. If the urinary system is healthy, the bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (two cups) of urine comfortably for two to five hours.
Circular muscles called sphincters help keep urine from leaking. The sphincter muscles close tightly like a rubber band around the opening of the bladder into the urethra, the tube that allows urine to pass outside the body. Nerves in the bladder tell you when it is time to urinate, or empty your bladder.
As the bladder first fills with urine, you may notice a feeling that you need to urinate. The sensation to urinate becomes stronger as the bladder continues to fill and reaches its limit. At that point, nerves from the bladder send a message to the brain that the bladder is full, and your urge to empty your bladder intensifies.
The urethra has two jobs: for men and women, one job is to carry urine from the bladder when you urinate, and the other job, for men, is to carry semen during a sexual climax, or ejaculation. Semen is a combination of sperm plus fluid that the prostate adds.
When you urinate, the brain signals the bladder muscles to tighten, squeezing urine out of the bladder. At the same time, the brain signals the sphincter muscles to relax. As these muscles relax, urine exits the bladder through the urethra. When all the signals occur in the correct order, normal urination occurs.
As part of a man’s sex organs, the prostate is about the size of a walnut and surrounds the tube called the urethra. The prostate gland is located near the base of the bladder and secretes fluid from the seminal vesicles.
Within the prostate, the urethra coming from the bladder is called the prostatic urethra and merges with the two ejaculatory ducts. The prostate is sheathed in the muscles of the pelvic floor, which contract during the ejaculatory process.
While the prostate is strictly a male organ, women have a similar organ called the Skene's gland, also known as the paraurethral gland. The Federative International Committee on Anatomical Terminology in 2002 officially renamed the Skene's gland the prostate, although this term is not universally accepted.
Like the male prostate, the Skene's gland secretes PSA and also expels fluid during orgasm. Some scientists argue that the organ should be called a female prostate and not the Skene's gland.